As we already seen in my previous post, in transient response analysis , the underdamped response is the most important. We defined the transient response specification for a unit step input as:
c(t) = 1 – sin (
A typical transient response for a step input is shown below:
Important specifications of the transient response are listed below :
- Delay Time ( )
- Rise Time ()
- Peak Time ()
- Peak Overshoot ()
- Settling Time ()
Now let us define each of these term individually:
Delay Time () : It can be defined as the quantity of time required for any response in order to attain 50% of that of the final value in the very first try . It can be represented as,
Rise Time () : It is the amount of time required by the response to increase from 10% to 90% of the ultimate value of an overdamped system. For an underdamped system the rise time is the time taken by the response in order to increase from 0% to 100% of that of the final value in the first attempt. The formula for this is,
Peak Time () : It is the amount of time needed by any response in order to reach its initial (first) peak. The first peak is eventually the highest peak achieved.
Peak Overshoot () : It is the highest peak value of any response that is calculated from the initial input signal .Further it is the highest possible error in between the output and input . It is normally represented in the form of percentage as shown below:
percentage of =
Settling time () : It can be defined as time needed for the transient damped oscillations to reach and then stay for around a given designated tolerance band ( ranging between 2 to 5 % of the input value).
Note : Rise time, peak time, and settling time gives us information about the speed of the transient response.
We shall now derive each of these response specifications (except for better clarity).
1.Derivation of Rise Time () :
For an underdamped system, it is the time taken for the output to reach 100% of the input value in the 1st attempt.
Hence at t = , c(t) = 1
We know, c(t) = 1 – sin ( ) ,
At t = , c(t) = 1 ( for all the ‘t’ , consider it as ‘ in the below equations)
1 – sin ( t + ) = 1 ,
Then , sin ( t + ) = 0,
But can not be zero, = 0 ,
Hence, = 0 ,
We know, sin n = 0 where n = 1, 2 …..
Then sin () = 0 only if = n
= n – , then t = ,
is calculated when the output reaches 100% of the input in the first attempt, i.e at n = 1 ,
2.Derivation of Peak Time () :
At ,the value of c(t) is at its maximum value, we know,
c(t) = 1 – sin ( ) ,
At t = , c(t) becomes maximum . We thus should use the Maxima theorem ( from derivatives property in maths), which states that the derivative of the maxima is zero.
[c(t)] = 0 ( at time t = ) ,
Thus, [ 1 – sin ( )] = 0 ( at time t =
We differentiate c(t) wrt zero,
[ 1 – sin ( )] = 0 ,
Also we know,
On squaring both sides and putting the value of in the equation,
But can not be zero ,
From properties of trigonometric relations we know,
t = or = (for first overshoot i.e n = 1),
Also, = sec
When n = 2 , we get time taken for 1st overshoot
When n = 3 , we get time taken for 2nd overshoot
3.Derivation of Peak Overshoot () :
We already know that is the maximum value of c(t) measured over and above the input value. So we can easily say that is to be calculated at time t =
= c(t) – 1 (at time t = ) ,
c(t) = 1 – sin ( ) – 1 , ( since t = = )
sin() = – sin ,
Also, from the standard pole diagram (we have seen in my earlier post),
sinθ = ,
sinθ = ,
= = = ( since ) ,
% = x 100
4.Derivation of Settling Time ( ) :
A system having underdamped transient response consists of poles which are complex conjugate , given by:
Also, sin ( )
We already seen that exponential part of above equation () governs the speed of the response. Also the sinusoidal part merely provides the oscillations . Hence for calculation of Settling time, our prime focus should be on the exponential part of the above equation.
If we consider 2% tolerance , then
()= 0.02 ,
Also since we are dealing with underdamped system for which ‘‘<<< 1 ,
We can ignore the denominator,
Then , () = 0.02,
Taking log both the sides,
= -3.912 ( at time t = ‘‘ )
= 4 ( on approxiation) ,
Thus = sec
Note: above formula is valid only for 2% tolerance band.
Finally, we reach the end of this wonderful post( really ??).I know the derivations part was a little boring and difficult to interpret at a first glance. I must say that before you dig deep inside derivations, please learn by heart all the formulas first( in the examination you can expect direct questions from the formulas). See you soon in my next post.
Aric is a tech enthusiast , who love to write about the tech related products and ‘How To’ blogs . IT Engineer by profession , right now working in the Automation field in a Software product company . The other hobbies includes singing , trekking and writing blogs .